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Political Theories and Systems of Government

This page lists numerous, but certainly not all, systems of government as practiced and theorized in the real world.

Under each system is a series of links or other named resources for you to read and learn about the system. After the link is a description of the contents of that link or resource.

For a page on how that system is put to practice in Civcraft, click on the “ * in Civcraft” link at the top of each list.

Note: Always keep in mind some sources may be biased!


Systems of Government

With Anarchistic Attributes

Anarchism without Adjectives

  • The lack of a functioning government with maximum personal freedom

Anarcho-Communism

  • Anarchy that abolishes the government, capitalism, wage labor, and private property and favors common ownership of means of production

Anarcho-Capitalism

  • A market based society with no functional government

Anarcha-Feminism

  • Compares the struggles of feminism to total anarchy and views a patriarchal society as a “manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy”

Anarcho-Naturism

  • Way of life that heavily consists of vegetarianism, nudism, free love, and hiking

Anarcho-Pacifism

  • Tendency in an anarchist state to not advocate violence within

Anarcho-Primitivism

  • An anarchist critique of the origin and roots of civilization

Anarcho-Syndicalism

  • Anarchism applied to the workers' movement to overthrow and dominate the economy

Collectivist Anarchism

  • Anarchism that advocates the abolition of government and private property

Illegalism

  • The idea that criminality is superior to average living

Individualist Anarchism

  • Anarchism the heavily exercises freedom for the individual

Mutualism

  • The idea that mutual dependence is imperative to social well-being


With Aristocratic Attributes

Aristocracy

  • Government controlled by a few; usually wealthy or powerful by title

Ergatocracy

  • Government controlled strictly by the workers of society

Geniocracy

  • Government controlled by those who can reach a high standard of intelligence

Kratocracy

  • Government controlled by the strongest and most aggressive

Kritarchy

  • Government controlled by a board of judges

Meritocracy

  • Government controlled by those with the highest of merit

Oligarchy

  • Government controlled by a small group from an institution

Plutocracy

  • Government controlled strictly by the wealthy

Stratocracy

  • Government controlled strictly by the military

Theocracy

  • Government controlled by a person or group with a deity or God as supreme ruler

Timocracy

  • Government controlled strictly by those who possess land

Technocracy

  • Government controlled by a person or group of technical experts


With Autocratic Attributes

Authoritarianism

  • Government that enforces a strict code of living with minimal personal freedom

Autocracy

  • Government controlled by one person that holds absolute power

Despotism

  • Government that exercises the absolute power of a monarch or absolute ruler

Dictatorship

  • Government controlled by a dictator (autocrat)

Fascism

  • Far-right system of government and society with three main attributes: authoritarianism, militarism, and nationalism

Totalitarianism

  • Government that concedes total, unchecked power to its autocrat


With Democratic Attributes

Democracy

  • Government controlled by all those in a society that are eligible to participate

Demarchy

  • Government controlled by randomly selected citizens. Also known as a lottocracy

Direct Democracy

  • Government controlled by citizens that directly make decisions for all

Liberal Democracy

  • Government controlled by elected officials and is heavily influenced by classical liberalism

Representative Democracy

  • Government controlled by elected officials that represent their voter base and make decisions in a legislature

Social Democracy

  • A form of democracy that is ruled via socialism. Exercises political change through peaceful means

Totalitarian Democracy

  • A form of democracy where citizens have the right to vote but absolutely no say in policy-making


With Federalism Attributes

Federalism

  • System of government with two levels of government. Typically state/local and federal/central

Federal Monarchy

  • A monarchy made of states/provinces

Federal Republic

  • A republic made of states/provinces


With Monarchic Attributes

Monarchy

  • Government controlled by a king or queen

Absolute Monarchy

  • Government controlled by a king or queen with unlimited powers

Constitutional Monarchy

  • Government controlled by a king or queen with limited powers found in a constitution

Diarchy

  • Government controlled by two independent rulers

Elective Monarchy

  • Government controlled by a king or queen that is elected

Caliphate

  • Government controlled by a king or queen influenced by Islamic law


With Republican Attributes

Republic

  • Government controlled by elected officials with a president as head of state

Constitutional Republic

  • Government controlled by elected officials with a president that must obey to an enacted constitution

Democratic Republic

  • Government controlled by the people and maintains itself through elected officials

Parliamentary Republic

  • Government controlled by the legislative branch that holds power of the executive branch

Federal Republic

  • Government controlled by a central body with powers specifically dedicated to states, colonies, and/or provinces

Islamic Republic

  • Government controlled by elected officials that rule via Islamic law

Socialist Republic

  • Government controlled by socialistic ideals. Also known as Socialist State, Workers' State, or Communist State.


With Other Attributes

Adhocracy

  • Government that is flexible and creative in solving issues

Anocracy

  • Government controlled by an ineffective and unstable regime

Band Society

  • The simplest for of human society

Bureaucracy

  • Government that appoints or elects officials to solve certain issues. Commonly head of a department

Chiefdom

  • Government controlled by unofficial but commonly accepted ruler/chief

Corporatocracy

  • Government controlled by many or one corporation

Kakistocracy

  • Government controlled by the worst people of a society

Kleptocracy

  • Government controlled by those who seek personal gain by exploiting the governed populous

Ochlocracy

  • Government controlled by a mob

Parliamentary System

  • Government in which the people elect members to the legislative body which then selects the head of state. The head of state is typically a Prime Minister

Presidential System

  • Government in which the people elect members to the legislative body. The people also select the head of state, contrary to a parliamentary system. The head of state is usually a President

Nomocracy

  • Government based on a code of laws rather than human will


Approaches to Regional Autonomy

Empire

  • A group of states (typically conquered) under one supreme authority with an emperor or empress as head

Unitary State

  • A state governed by one, central government that hold superiority to regional/provincial governments

Hegemony

  • Leadership by one country or social group over another

Confederation

  • A group that consists of several groups and/or parties in an organized union

Federation

  • A group that consists of several groups and/or parties in an organized union but maintain independence

Alliance

  • A relationship between multiple groups that work together for mutual benefit or to achieve a common goal

Colony

  • A territory under control of a state usually distant from the mainland

Occupied Territory

  • Territory occupied by a military or foreign force with certain regulations

Protectorate

  • A state that is directly protected by a superior state and tends to hold political, social, and economic influence

Commonwealth

  • An association made of several groups devoted to the well-being of each other


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